Covering an area of 64132 sqaure km Qazvin is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran. Located 150 km (93 mi) northwest of Tehran , Qazvin was an ancient capital in the Persian Empire and nowadays is known as the calligraphy capital of Iran. At the 2011 census, its population was 381,598.
The city was a former capital of the Persian Empire under Safavids. It is a provincial capital today that has been an important cultural center throughout history.
Archeological findings in the Qazvin plain reveal urban agricultural settlements for at least nine millennia. Qazvin geographically connects Tehran, Isfahan, and the Persian Gulf to the Caspian seacoast and Asia Minor, hence its strategic location throughout the ages.
The city today known as Qazvin is thought to have been founded by Shapur II, King of Persia in 250 CE, under the name Shad Shahpur (shad can be read as ‘happy’), when he built a fortification there to control regional tensions.
Qazvin has sometimes been of central importance at major moments of Iranian history. It was captured by invading Arabs (644 AD) and destroyed by Hulagu Khan (13th century). After the Ottoman capture of Tabriz, Shah Tahmasp (1524–1576) made Qazvin the capital of the Safavid empire (founded in 1501 AD), a status that Qazvin retained for half a century until Shah Abbas I moved the capital to Isfahan.
In the 19th century Qazvin flourished as a center of trade because the only all-year accessible road from the Caspian Sea to the Highland started here and with enhanced traffic on the Caspian Sea the trade volume grew. Its bazaars were enlarged.
In the middle of the century the Babi movement had one of its centers here and the first massacre of Babis occurred in Qazvin in 1847.
In the second half of the 19th century Qazvin was one of the centers of Russian presence in northern Iran. A detachment of the Persian Cossack Brigade under Russian officers was stationed here. From 1893 this was the headquarters of the Russian Company for Road construction in Persia which connected Qazvin by roads to Tehran and Hamadan. The company built a hospital and the St. Nicolas Church.
In 1920 Qazvin was used as a base for the British Norperforce. The 1921 Persian coup d’etat that led to the rise of the Pahlavi dynasty was launched from Qazvin.
Qazvin became a state in 2001.
Climate and weather:
Qazvin’s climate is a local steppe climate. During the year there is little rainfall.
Precipitation is the lowest in August, with an average of 1 mm. Most of the precipitation here falls in April, averaging 75 mm.
At an average temperature of 26.0 °C, July is the hottest month of the year. January is the coldest month, with temperatures averaging 1.9 °C .
Most of Qazvinis are Persians and speak the Qazvini Persian which was influenced by Pahlavi Language . but there are Turk and Tat Minorities .
Majority of qazvinis are twelver shia muslims , but there are also few followers of various sects of Christianity .
All sorts of public transportation are available in Qazvin including : buses and taxis. Qazvin also has a railway station and a bus terminal.
Qazvin is the home to many historical and natural attractions such as: Barajin and fadak resort , Saadosaltaneh complex and many historical water reservoirs. Qazvin also has warm friendly people who really help the tourists to have a good time there.
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