Hamadan

Hamadan or Hamedan is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran, located approximately 360 kilometers (224 miles) southwest of Tehran and covering an area of 6285.8 Hectares. At the 2011 census, its population was 548,378.

Hamadan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities and one of the oldest in the world. It is possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE; the Ancient Greek historian, Herodotus, states that it was the capital of the Medes, around 700 BCE. Hamadan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the 3,574-meter Alvand Mountain, in the Midwest part of Iran. The city is 1,850 meters above sea level.

History:
Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median Empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty.

During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon was the capital of the country, and Hamadan the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanid constructed their summer palaces in Hamadan. In the year 633 the battle of Nahavand took place and Hamadan fell into the hands of the Muslim Arabs.

During the Buwayhids, the city suffered much damage. In the 11th century, the Seljuq shifted their capital from Baghdad to Hamadan. The city of Hamadan, its fortunes following the rise and fall of regional powers, was completely destroyed during the Timurid invasion.

 During the Safavid era, the city thrived. Thereafter, in the 18th century, Hamadan was surrendered to the Ottomans, but due to the courage and chivalry of Nader Shah e Afshar, Hamadan was cleared of invaders and, as a result of a peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans, it was returned to Iran. Hamadan stands on the Silk Road, and even in recent centuries the city enjoyed strong commerce and trade as a result of its location on the main road network in the western region of Persia and Iran.

During World War I, the city was the scene of heavy fighting between Russian and Turko-German forces. It was occupied by both armies, and finally by the British, before it was returned to control of the Iranian government at the end of the war in 1918.

Climate and Weather:
The climate here is mild, and generally warm and temperate. The rain in Hamadan falls mostly in the winter, with relatively little rain in the summer. In Hamadan, the average annual temperature is 11.3 °C. The rainfall here averages 384 mm.

Precipitation is the lowest in July, with an average of 1 mm. In April, the precipitation reaches its peak, with an average of 76 mm. At an average temperature of 23.6 °C, August is the hottest month of the year. At 0.6 °C on average, February is the coldest month of the year.

Demographics:
Hamadan is home to the Hamadanis and a Turk minority. The majority of Hamadanis are officially Twelver Shia Muslims, which is also the state religion since the Muslim invasion of Iran. Religious minorities include few followers of Christianity and Judaism.

Transportation:
All kinds of public transportations are available in Hamadan for getting around in the city, including buses and taxis. Hamadan also has a railway station, three bus terminals and an airport for domestic flights (and also flights to Syria and Saudi Arabia)

Tourism:
As a historic city, Hamadan has great museums, historical monuments and mausoleums. It is home to many historic and natural touristic sites; it is the home of Ganjnameh, the UNESCO World heritage site to be.